This is not a database of “green” or “safe” solvents, but a collection of objective data to help decided if a solvent is safer option than what you are currently using. In this database, the term solvent has been broadened to be “a nonreactive liquid that has the potential to dissolve something.” This description allows for more unique chemicals to be considered and increases the possibilities for a suitable safer replacement. The solvents in this database are organic, there are no aqueous solutions in the database at this time.
DOSS was created by TURI out of necessity from using the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory and its software Hansen Solubility Parameters in Practice (HSPiP) for replacing highly hazardous chemicals. When there is no current safer substitute that is both effective and affordable TURI has used HSPiP to find or create solutions such as creating a paint and coatings remover and replacing trichloroethylene in vapor degreasing. Through these projects, one of the longest tasks of the research has been curating a list of solvents that reflect the needed Environmental Health and Safety (EHS), physical properties, and cost requirements for that solvent application. The HSPiP program is extremely helpful in understanding the effectiveness of different chemicals, but it isn’t easy to tell the health/safety effects, physical properties, or cost while using the program.
The database was originally created as an internal tool to accelerate TURI’s method of solvent replacement but found it could be helpful for others’ research as well, so it was converted to a searchable open source website. The website is maintained through our students who update each solvent’s EHS and cost information every semester (Fall/Spring/Summer) to preserve the reliability of the data. We are hoping to add more physical properties, other solubility theories, and other environmental factors to the database to expand the usefulness of DOSS.
Criteria of Safety for Chosen Solvents
The process of selecting solvents is based on GHS Categories listed on the most recent SDS that reflects the hazards confirmed through other toxicology databases (more information in Data Collection Process below). The following are descriptions of the GHS Categories that were determined “unsafe” and “safe”: Health Hazards Environmental Hazards
Acute Toxicity (Oral/Dermal/Inhalation): Excluded:
Skin Corrosion/Irritation: Excluded:
Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation: Excluded:
Respiratory or Skin Sensitization: Excluded:
Germ Cell Mutagenicity: Excluded:
Reproductive Toxicology: Excluded:
Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Single Exposure: Excluded:
Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Repeated Exposure: Excluded:
Aspiration Toxicity: Excluded:
GHS Environmental Hazards
Aquatic Toxicity - Acute Excluded:
Aquatic Toxicity- Chronic Excluded:
Data Collection Process
We find a solvent’s SDS sheet using ToxPlanet’s MSDSOnline search which has a collection of all of a chemical’s SDS sheets available online sorted by the date it was updated. We look at these SDS sheets and cross reference them with toxicology websites such as the Pharos Database to verify that the GHS hazards reflect the chemical’s toxicology. We find the most recently updated SDS sheet with verified GHS hazards and link it to the database.
The glove type is taken from the found SDS sheet or from the chemical’s Sigma Aldrich SDS sheet. If no glove type was specified, the glove type is labeled as “Unknown.” We list both the splash and full contact gloves needed, although the database doesn’t differentiate between the two it is easily found by looking at Section 8 of the SDS sheet.
The HSP values of each chemical was taken from the HSPiP Program. The chemicals that were not found in the HSPiP program and were created from SMILES code. The source of the HSP value will be indicated on the solvent’s page.
We collect the physical properties data from a variety of different sources which are referenced on the solvent’s page. We mostly collect data from SciFinder Scholar, SDS sheets from various companies, and technical data sheets. If needed we also do an internet search for specific properties. If a reference points to a journal article, it was most likely collected on SciFinder Scholar under their Substance Identifier search. We try to gather reliable physical properties information at room temperature and pressure, but if we have input a false value please let us know at Doss.email@example.com.
The cost of the chemical is determined by the public cost of what is available online through various chemical manufacturers. The price listed is an average of the costs we have found in both Bulk and Lab sizes. Lab size are in USD $/g and are typically sizes of 1 kg or less. Bulk sizes are in USD $/lb and are typically the size of 1 kg or greater. Bulk costs are going to be inflated because they are publicly listed bulk units and will not be the same cost as $/ton. Most of the bulk costs are from Molbase.com which has the reference price of $/kg.
Cost is included in the database to give the user an idea of the price of the chemical to show that it is being manufactured by multiple sources. If you are interested in a chemical, inquire at the various companies for a more accurate (and most likely cheaper) price.
Companies are not obligated to charge the price of our posted prices.
This is a tool that can be misused. TURI is not responsible for the misuse of this tool and does not claim that every solvent in this database is safe for your application. Please do further research on each solvent to determine if it is safe for your application.
For information about how to use the optimization guide and database please click the Resources page.